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Bibliography and References

7. Bibliography.

 In addition to various discussions and observations found online, the following books and articles were of great use to me in the initial implementation of this project.

 ‘Stereogram’, ed. David Burder, published in the UK by Boxtree limited.

The first book of autostereograms to go on general sale. Includes an informal description of the simplest stereogram generation algorithm.

‘SuperStereogram’, ed. David Burder, published in the UK by Boxtree limited.

The sequel to ‘Stereogram’, with more images, a potted history of the stereogram and an interview with Bela Julesz.

‘Magic Eye’, assorted books and products.

Forgus, R.H. and Melamed, L.E.:Perception – a cognitive stage approach’, McGraw Hill, 1976.

Containing a useful, if brief, analysis of human depth perception.

Hochberg, J.E.: ‘Perception’, Prentice-Hall, 1961.

Contains information on depth perception.

A series on stereograms also ran in the Daily Mail weekend supplement for several months in 1995, containing many very good stereograms, and a small amount of information about their construction. This series was the original inspiration of this project.

Many of the original articles, such as those by Bela Julesz and Tyler and Clarke are difficult to get hold of, having been printed in journals a long time before stereograms became popular.  Samples of these articles can be found on the internet, however.  Worth searching for are the extracts from:

 Julesz, Bela: “Principles of Cyclopean Perception”, Chicago Press 1971 (?).

Description of Julesz’ initial research into binocular disparity as a depth cue, where he hit upon the idea of the random dot stereogram.

Tyler & Chang, article in “Vision Research #17”, 1977.

Consideration of the possibility of Single Image Stereograms, using the wallpaper effect.

Wheatstone, titles unknown, 1838 / 1852.

Description of the stereoscope, the original device for viewing stereoscopic images.

Good sources of information on the internet:

Wikipedia Autostereogram Page

Andrew’s Stereogram page at

Peter Chang and Gareth Richard’s SIRDS and SIS page

Displaying 3D Images: Algorithms for Single Image Random Dot Stereograms’, H. Thimbleby, S. Inglis and I. Witten.

Report of postgraduate research on stereograms, including summary of the psychology and geometry behind stereograms, a brief description of the simplest stereogram generation algorithm and a detailed description of their Constraint Satisfaction Algorithm, with C source code.

Usenet Stereogram FAQ
A collection of information by various authors, including a history of stereograms, some of the psychology and mathematics behind them and a description of some generation algorithms.  Was essential when I first researched the project in 1995, but pretty out-dated now.

Get the software

Stereogrammer is available here.

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